Wikipedia has been used as source/reference material to compile this glossary.
In linguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation. An accent may identify the locality in which its speakers reside (a geographical or regional accent), the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class, their first language (when the language in which the accent is heard is not their native language), and so on. Accents typically differ in quality of voice, pronunciation of vowels and consonants, stress, and prosody. Although grammar, semantics, vocabulary, and other language characteristics often vary concurrently with accent, the word ‘accent’ refers specifically to the differences in pronunciation, whereas the word ‘dialect’ encompasses the broader set of linguistic differences. Often ‘accent’ is a subset of ‘dialect’
ADR (Automated Dialogue Replacement). The term most commonly refers to the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language. The procedure was sometimes practised in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice, and remains in use to enable the screening of audio-visual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the original performers. “Dubbing” also describes the process of an actor’s re-recording lines spoken during filming and which must be replaced to improve audio quality or reflect dialog changes. This process is called automated dialogue replacement, or ADR for short. Music is also dubbed onto a film after editing is completed.
Animationis the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in several ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although there are other methods.
An audio guide or audio tour provides a recorded spoken commentary, normally through a handheld device, to a visitor attraction. They are also available for self-guided tours of outdoor locations, or as a part of an organised tour. It provides background, context, and information on the things being viewed. Audio guides are often in multilingual versions and can be made available in different ways. Some of the more elaborate tours available include original music and interviews, offering an experience more comparable to an audio documentary than to a traditional guided tour.
Audiovisual translation refers to the translation of a text, which is used in the context of a film, video, presentation, etc. This differs from traditional translation in that time constraints have to be adhered to and the text adapted accordingly. It normally relates to the text spoken by a voice over, narrator or sub- or sur-titles.
An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performer. It typically involves the performer displaying their talent through a previously memorized and rehearsed solo piece or by performing a work or piece which is given to the performer at the audition or shortly before. In some cases, such as with a model or acrobat, the individual may be asked to demonstrate a range of professional skills.
A “back-translation” is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text. In the context of a machine translation, a back-translation is also called a “round-trip translation.” Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a quality check on the original translation. But while useful as an approximate check, it is far from infallible.
Cartoon voices are character voices which accompany cartoons or animated characters. These are mostly used in the children’s market but can also be used in the corporate market, such as in presentations or in a goanim8 video.
Actors and voice over talents use character voices to play different roles according to the client’s needs, e.g. corporate, cartoon, commercial, video game.
CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which is used in the field of software and communications internationalization.
The term CJKV means CJK plus Vietnamese, which constitute the main East Asian languages.
see Machine Translation.
Computer-assisted translation (CAT) is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process. Computer-assisted translation is sometimes called machine-assisted, or machine-aided, translation.
All documents and audio files, delivered to us by clients are treated as strictly confidential and are never disclosed to any third party.
Copywriting is the use of words and ideas to promote a person, business, opinion or idea. Although the word copy may be applied to any content intended for printing (as in the body of a newspaper article or book), the term copywriter is generally limited to promotional situations, regardless of the medium (as advertisements for print, television, radio or other media). The word copywriting is regularly used as a noun or gerund. The purpose of marketing copy, or promotional text, is to persuade the reader, listener or viewer to act—for example, to buy a product or subscribe to a certain viewpoint.
Corporate presentations are used by companies for a variety of purposes: to market themselves, explain their products or services, recruit staff or even advertising. Check out the goanim8 section – where we will help you to put across your idea in a creative, stylish and fun way. We will create a storyline to explain your concept and present it in an original and engaging way – an animated marketing video, a goanim8.
In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development.
Corporate video production refers to audio-visual corporate communications material (such as DVD, High-definition video, streaming video or other media) commissioned primarily for a use by a company, corporation or organisation. A corporate video is often intended for a specific purpose in a corporate or B2B environment and viewed only by a limited or targeted audience. This may include product, service or company promotional videos, training videos and information videos. Corporate video production is frequently the responsibility of a company marketing or corporate communications manager. Examples of corporate video include staff training and safety videos, promotional/brand films, and financial results videos.
With the growth of digital technology, there is now often convergence between corporate video and other forms of media communications, such as broadcast television and TV advertising.
Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. The term “desktop publishing” is commonly used to describe page layout skills. However, the skills and software are not limited to paper and book publishing. The same skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs and outdoor signs.
The term dialect (from the Greek Language word dialektos, Διάλεκτος) is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language’s speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class. A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect; a regional dialect may be termed a regiolect or topolect. The other usage refers to a language socially subordinate to a regional or national standard language, often historically cognate to the standard, but not a variety of it or in any other sense derived from it. This more precise usage enables distinguishing between varieties of a language, such as the French spoken in Nice, France, and local languages distinct from the superordinate language, e.g. Nissart, the traditional native Romance language of Nice, known in French as Niçard.
A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation, the term accent is appropriate, not dialect. Other speech varieties include: standard languages, which are standardized for public performance (for example, a written standard); jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins or argots.
See Literal translation.
Dominant language normally refers to your first i.e. native language – the language in which the speaker has greater proficiency.
Dubbbing is the post-production process of recording and replacing voices on a motion picture or television soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting. The term most commonly refers to the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language. The procedure was sometimes practised in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice, and remains in use to enable the screening of audio-visual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the original performers. “Dubbing” also describes the process of an actor’s re-recording lines spoken during filming and which must be replaced to improve audio quality or reflect dialog changes. This process is called automated dialogue replacement, or ADR for short. Music is also dubbed onto a film after editing is completed.
Films, videos and sometimes video games are often dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. Dubbing is common in theatrically released film, television series, cartoons and anime given foreign distribution.
E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum.
E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.
Abbreviations like CBT (Computer-Based Training), IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-Based Training) have been used as synonyms to e-learning. Today one can still find these terms being used, along with variations of e-learning such as elearning, Elearning, and eLearning. The terms will be utilized throughout this article to indicate their validity under the broader terminology of E-learning.
E-learning translation or also called “courseware translation”. Whether the educational programme translation is aimed at an external audience, i.e. an online technical school, or an internal one, i.e. a globally-distributed team, companies need time- and cost-effective solutions to ensure that original content is developed taking multilingual adaptation into consideration. Since e-learning tends to be multimedia rich, usually incorporating audio and video, e-learning translations and online training translations require expertise in translating written course materials as well as in DTP and multimedia localisation. The most common documents translated in this field are, HR and training documents.
Economic translation refers to translation of documents related to economics as an academic discipline and translation non-academic documents such as sales reports, bank articles, often requiring specialist vocabulary and terminology. Economics is a broad and complex subject field with several sub-fields i.e. micro economics, macro economics. For a flawless economic translation the economic translator must have in-depth knowledge on the particular domain of economics s/he translates. Along with this proficiency in both source and target languages is a primary necessity for accurate economic translations. That is why, this work is usually carried out by translators who have specialist knowledge of the economic field. Often these translators have experience of working in the economic sector themselves.
FIGS is an acronym for French, Italian, German, Spanish. These are usually the first four languages chosen to localize products into when a company enters the European market.
Financial translations can be tricky. Investment and High Street Banks and Insurance Companies – the global impact of finance means ensuring communication is accurate. The translation of financial texts, is carried out only by in-country professional translators who only ever translate into their mother tongue – and who have specialist knowledge of the financial field.
Freelance Translators are usually translators who are self employed and not in any contract, rather than in-house. They may or may not work through a translation agency.
A freelancer, freelance worker, or freelance is somebody who is self-employed and is not committed to a particular employer long term. Fields where freelancing is common include translation and voice over.
Gist translation is the use of machine or human translation to create a rough translation of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text.
Globalisation (or globalization) describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade. Globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through acculturation.
Idiom (Latin: idioma, “special property”, f. Greek: ἰδίωμα — idiōma, “special feature, special phrasing”, f. Greek: ἴδιος — idios, “one’s own”) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is comprehended in regard to a common use of that expression that is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language.
In linguistics, idioms are usually presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality; yet the matter remains debated. John Saeed defines an “idiom” as words collocated that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term. This collocation — words commonly used in a group — redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. The words develop a specialized meaning as an entity, as an idiom. Moreover, an idiom is an expression, word, or phrase whose sense means something different from what the words literally imply. When a speaker uses an idiom, the listener might mistake its actual meaning, if he or she has not heard this figure of speech before. Idioms usually do not translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless.
In-store Announcements are announcements made through a PA system in public areas, usually shops or shopping centres.
Infomercialsare long-format television commercials, typically five minutes or longer. Infomercials are also known as paid programming (or teleshopping in Europe). This phenomenon started in the United States where infomercials were typically shown overnight (usually 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.), outside of peak hours. Some television stations chose to air infomercials as an alternative to the former practice of sign-off. By 2009, most US infomercial spending is during early morning, daytime, and evening hours. Stations in most countries around the world have instituted similar media structures. According to tapebeat.com, over $150 billion of consumer products in the US are sold through infomercials.
The term “infomercial” is sometimes misapplied and used to refer to direct response television advertisements (DRTV) of 60 to 120 seconds. However, the term describes program length advertisements which are typically 28 minutes and 30 seconds. While the term “infomercial” was originally applied only to television advertising; it is now sometimes used to refer to any presentation (often on video) which presents a significant amount of information in an actual, or perceived, attempt to persuade to a point of view. When used this way, the term may be meant to carry an implication that the party making the communication is exaggerating truths or hiding important facts.
ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Prior to ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). 36. IVR – the Interactive Voice Response that is an automated telephone information system speaking to the caller with a blend fixed voice menus and data taken out from databases.
A jingle is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. The jingle contains one or more hooks and lyrics that explicitly promote the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. Ad buyers use jingles in radio and television commercials; they can also be used in non-advertising contexts to establish or maintain a brand image. For example, a disk jockey at a pop music radio station or chain of stations may sing a jingle for station identification purposes. Jingles are a form of sound branding.
Legal translation is the translation of texts within the field of law. As law is a culture-dependent subject field, legal translation is not a simple task. Only professional translators specialising in legal translation should translate legal documents and scholarly writings. The mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text (ST) is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text (TT) is to be read by someone who is familiar with the other legal system (corresponding to the jurisdiction for which TT is prepared) and its language. Most forms of legal writing, and contracts in particular, seek to establish clearly defined rights and duties for certain individuals. It is essential to ensure precise correspondence of these rights and duties in the source text and in the translation. Legal translation may also involve, Certificates of Accuracy, Witness Statements, Depositions, Trusts, Wills, Articles of Incorporation, Litigation Documents, Immigration Documents, Property/Exhibit Labels and in some cases attendance in court by the translator(s).
Literal translation, or direct translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) rather than conveying the sense of the original. (This distinction is valid only when a literal translation does not accurately convey the sense, which is not invariably true.)
Literary translation is a genre of literary creativity in which a work written in one language is re-created in another. Because literature is verbal, it is the only art that is subject to linguistic barriers. Unlike music, painting, sculpture, or dance, the literary work is accessible only to those who know the language in which it is written. The specific characteristics of literary translation are defined by its place among other types of translation and by its relationship to original literary creativity.
In literary translation, language has more than a communicative, or social and connective purpose. The word functions as the “primary element” of literature—that is, it has an aesthetic function. Between the inception and the completion of a creative work of translation, a complex process takes place—the “trans-expression” (A. S. Pushkin’s term) of the life captured in the fabric of imagery of the work being translated. Therefore, the problems of literary translation are within the sphere of art and are subject to its specific laws.
Literary translation differs from literary creativity in that its existence depends on the existence of an object of translation, a work to be translated. However, in the actual literary process, it is not always possible to draw a distinct boundary between translation and all creative literature. In quite a few instances, a work may not be a translation in the usual sense, but it may not be possible to describe it unreservedly as a work of literary creativity. (A number of labels are used to designate these works: “free translation,” “imitation,” “a work on the themes of,” and “based on.” The specific meanings of these designations differ, depending on the language and the period.)
A loanword (or loan word) is a word borrowed from one language and incorporated into another.
Localisation or Localization – Language localisation (from the English term locale, “a place where something happens or is set”) is the second phase of a larger process of product translation and cultural adaptation (for specific countries, regions, or groups) to account for differences in distinct markets, a process known as internationalisation and localisation. Language localisation is not merely a translation activity, because it involves a comprehensive study of the target culture in order to correctly adapt the product to local needs.
The localisation process is most generally related to the cultural adaptation and translation of software, video games, and websites, and less frequently to any written translation (which may also involve cultural adaptation processes). Localisation can be done for regions or countries where people speak different languages, or where the same language is spoken: for instance, different dialects of Spanish, with different idioms, are spoken in Spain than are spoken in Latin America; likewise, word choices and idioms vary among countries where English is the official language (e.g., in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Philippines).
Machine translation , sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT, also called computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation MAHT and interactive translation, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another.
At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another, but that alone usually cannot produce a good translation of a text, because recognition of whole phrases and their closest counterparts in the target language is needed. Solving this problem with corpus and statistical techniques is a rapidly growing field that is leading to better translations, handling differences in linguistic typology, translation of idioms, and the isolation of anomalies.
In order to professionally carry out international market research, it is paramount to have an understanding of the local culture and the language of the people being researched. Accuracy, linguistic idioms, correct vernacular – all these elements are to be absolutely correct in the research material for foreign language markets. The types of materials commonly translated in this area are questionnaires. Market Research translation should only be done by qualified native speakers with the specialised skills and experience to understand the exact needs of market research translating. They cover capabilities in most sectors, whether consumer or business – from FMCG (Fast moving consumer goods) to communications, from pharmaceuticals to finance and technology.
Translating for marketing purposes involves much more than just a literal translation. When dealing with creative material, play on words or key phrases written for a specific market, a direct translation does not convey the exact sentiment that was intended by the original language. Marketing translations require special care and a deep understanding of the target audience to being able to integrate symbolism, metaphors and emotional factors as a part of an original and appealing marketing concept.
Medical translation is a highly specialised discipline and should only be carried out by suitably qualified translators. Only using specialist translators who are biomedical engineers, doctors or have experience in your particular medical field in addition to a language degree.
Also called first language, native language, arterial language, or L1 is the language(s) a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity. In some countries, the terms native language or mother tongue refer to the language of one’s ethnic group rather than one’s first language.
By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one’s first language.
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term “rich media” is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
A narrator is, within any story (literary work, movie, play, verbal account, etc.), the person who tells the story to the audience. When the narrator is also a character within the story, he or she is sometimes known as the viewpoint character. The narrator is one of three entities responsible for story-telling of any kind. The others are the author and the audience; the latter called the “reader” when referring specifically to literature.
On hold messaging is “messages on hold” – a service used by businesses and organizations of all sizes to deliver targeted information to their callers waiting on hold or while they are being transferred. On Hold Messaging production companies generally write the script and produce the recordings. On Hold Messaging can be delivered via telephone lines, the Internet, cassette tape, CD or audio file. Compatible phone systems have a port which links the message player to the phone line or PBX.
A passive speaker (also referred to as a receptive bilingual or passive bilingual) is someone who has had enough exposure to a language in childhood to have a native-like comprehension of it, but has little or no active command of it. Such speakers are especially common in language shift communities where speakers of a declining language do not acquire active competence. Around 10% of the Ainu people who speak the language are considered passive speakers. Passive speakers are often targeted in language revival efforts to increase the number of speakers of a language quickly, as they are likely to gain active and near-native speaking skills more quickly than those with no knowledge of the language. They are also found in areas where people grow up hearing another language outside their family with no formal education.
Post-production is part of the filmmaking process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, videos, audio recordings, photography, and digital art. It is term for all stages of production occurring after the actual end of shooting and/or recording the completed work. Post-production is, in fact, many different processes grouped under one name.
A presentation made by using Microsoft PowerPoint software. It is a collection of slides that have information on a topic. But if you want to be different and stand out from the crowd a demonstration of your idea is better than just talking about it. A goanim8 movie will help potential clients or investors to understand difficult concepts by breaking them down into easy-to-understand, memorable scenes, which will leave a lasting impression.
Proofreading (also proof-reading) is the reading of a galley proof or computer monitor to detect and correct production-errors of text or art. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication.
A radio promo is a recorded announcement for radio commercial used in a promotional or advertising campaign.
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally, the space is specially designed by an acoustician to achieve the desired acoustic properties (sound diffusion, low level of reflections, adequate reverberation time for the size of the ambient, etc.). Different types of studios record bands and artists, voiceovers and music for television shows, movies, animations, and commercials, and/or even record a full orchestra. The typical recording studio consists of a room called the “studio”, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform; and the “control room”, which houses the equipment for recording, routing and manipulating the sound. Often, there will be smaller rooms called “isolation booths” present to accommodate loud instruments such as drums or electric guitar, to keep these sounds from being audible to the microphones that are capturing the sounds from other instruments or vocalists.
A retake is carried out on request, if for any reason the client is not happy with the recording supplied.
Script translation in not limited to movies or films but also can be useful for features, interviews, documentaries, screenplays, bonus material, film pitches, adverts, stage plays and many more. A good script translation is defined by the ability to communicate nuances, wit, humor and the various subtleties of a creatively written script and to effectively span cultural barriers.
Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements.
Source language is the language of the text which is to be translated.
The Target Language (TL) is the language into which the source text is to be translated.
Technical translation is a type of specialized translation involving the translation of documents produced by technical writers (owner’s manuals, user guides, etc.), or more specifically, texts which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical application of scientific and technological information. While the presence of specialized terminology is a feature of technical texts, specialized terminology alone is not sufficient for classifying a text as “technical” since numerous disciplines and subjects which are not “technical” possess what can be regarded as specialized terminology. Technical translation covers the translation of many kinds of specialized texts and requires a high level of subject knowledge and mastery of the relevant terminology and writing conventions.
The importance of consistent terminology in technical translation, for example in patents, as well as the highly formulaic and repetitive nature of technical writing makes computer-assisted translation using translation memories and terminology databases especially appropriate. In his book Technical Translation Jody Byrne argues that technical translation is closely related to technical communication and that it can benefit from research in this and other areas such as usability and cognitive psychology.
A television advertisement or television commercial, often just commercial, advert, ad, or ad-film (India) – is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization that conveys a message. Advertisement revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes (as well as program-length infomercials). Advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods, services and ideas since the dawn of television. The effect of commercial advertisements upon the viewing public has been successful and pervasive.
A trailer or preview is an advertisement for a feature film that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema. The term “trailer” comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a feature film screening. That practice did not last long, because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature) begins.
In the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of spoken language (or: speech) in written form. Transcription should not be confused with translation, which means representing the meaning of a source language text in a target language (e.g. translating the meaning of an English text into Spanish), or with transliteration which means representing a text from one writing system in another writing system (e.g. transliterating a text in Cyrillic script into Latin script).
From an information-theoretical point of view, transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another, word by word, or ideally letter by letter. Transliteration attempts to use a one-to-one correspondence and be exact, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. Transliteration is opposed to transcription, which specifically maps the sounds of one language to the best matching script of another language. Still, most systems of transliteration map the letters of the source script to letters pronounced similarly in the goal script, for some specific pair of source and goal language. If the relations between letters and sounds are similar in both languages, a transliteration may be (almost) the same as a transcription. In practice, there are also some mixed transliteration/transcription systems that transliterate a part of the original script and transcribe the rest.
In a broader sense, the word transliteration may be used to include both transliteration in the narrow sense and transcription. Anglicizing is a transcription method. Romanization encompasses several transliteration and transcription methods.
A tutorial is one method of transferring knowledge and may be used as a part of a learning process. More interactive and specific than a book or a lecture; a tutorial seeks to teach by example and supply the information to complete a certain task. Depending on the context a tutorial can take one of many forms, ranging from a set of instructions to complete a task to an interactive problem solving session (usually in academia).
Typesetting is the composition of text material by means of types. Typesetting requires the prior process of designing a font and storing it in some manner. Typesetting is the retrieval of the stored letters (called sorts in mechanical systems and glyphs in digital systems) and the ordering of them according to a language’s orthography for visual display.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term “video game”, it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use.
Video production, or videography, is the art and service of videotaping, editing, and distributing a finished video product. This can include television production, commercial video production, corporate and event videos and special-interest home video. A video production can range in size from one solo camera operator (aka a “one-man band”), to a crew of two including the camera operator and a sound person, to a multiple-camera shoot requiring many personnel.
A virtual tour is a simulation of an existing location, usually composed of a sequence of video images. They also may use other multimedia elements such as sound effects, music, narration, and text. The phrase “virtual tour” is often used to describe a variety of video and photographic-based media. Panorama indicates an unbroken view, since a panorama can be either a series of photographs or panning video footage. However, the phrases “panoramic tour” and “virtual tour” have mostly been associated with virtual tours created using still cameras. Such virtual tours are made up of a number of shots taken from a single vantage point.
A voice demo is used by a voice over talent, and it usually consists of a variety of samples from different types of voice over work. If you are sending your demo to GoLocalise, it should contain a good mixture of corporate, commercial, educational and any other experience you have in the field, to show off the full range of your skills. Also make sure you include a sample of your voice in English with your foreign accent.
Voice-over (also known as off-camera or off-stage commentary) is a production technique where a voice which is not part of the narrative (non-diegetic) is used in a radio, television, film, theatre, or other presentation. The voice-over may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice actor.
Website localisation is the process of adapting an existing website to local culture and language in the target market. Two factors are involved—programming expertise and linguistic/cultural knowledge.
The prosperity of website localisation is the result of the popularity of computer and Internet users. People all over the world treat the Internet as their main location for information and services. These people do not speak the same language. Website localisation has become one of the primary tools for business global expansion. Website localisation is more than mere translation. Translating only solves partial language problems. Measurement units are converted; images are modified to appeal to the target culture.
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